Manuscripts of the Estoria de Espanna


Manuscripts of the Estoria de Espanna

Following the classification of Inés Fernández-Ordóñez, the extant manuscripts of the Estoria de Espanna are as follows. We provide detailed codicological descriptions of those manuscripts employed in the edition (highlighted below). Where images, and bibliographical data, are available online of any of these manuscripts, a link has been provided.

A:      BNE 8817 (Gallego-portugués) Images at Biblioteca Digital Hispánica

A’:     Universidad de Salamanca 2497 (gallego-portugués)

Ae:    BNE 643 (traducción de la versión gallego-portuguesa) Images at Biblioteca Digital Hispánica 

B:      Universidad de Salamanca 2022 Images: Repositorio Documental de la Uni. de Salamanca

C:      BNE 12837 (primera redacción, copy of E1)

Cah:   RAH Madrid 9/5651 (primera redacción, independent of E/Q)

Ce:    BNE 1526 Images at Biblioteca Digital Hispánica (Mss/1865)

Cf:     Universidad de Salamanca 2684 (mixed version) Images: Repositorio Documental

Cs:     BNE 1865 (copy of C) Images at Biblioteca Digital Hispánica

E:      Comprised of E1 Escorial Y-I-2 and E2 Escorial X-I-4

Eg:    BNE17769 (versión primitiva derived from E)

Eh:    BNE 1487 (copy of E2) Images at Biblioteca Digital Hispánica

Ei:     BNE 1195 (copy of E1) Images at Biblioteca Digital Hispánica (catalogue erroneously describes manuscript author as Rodrigo Jiménez de Rada)

Ej:     RAH Madrid 11.13.3 (copy of E)

F:      Universidad de Salamanca 2628 Images: Repositorio Documental

G:      Escorial X-I-11 (primera redacción/en. de 1274/1289)

I:       BNE 10134 (copy of E2)

J:       BNE 1347 (1289/Cr.Cast) Images at Biblioteca Digital Hispánica

L:      BNE 1298 (vulgar/1274/versión críticaBiblioteca Digital Hispánica

Min:  University of Minnesota Z946.02/fC88I (Copy of E with CVR) Images at University of Minnesota.

N:      Palacio Real Madrid II/2063 (vulgar)

Nn:    Palacio Real Madrid II/1264 (vulgar)

O-F:  BNE 828 (primera redacción, E, más EfG) Images at Biblioteca Digital Hispánica (Mss/828)

Q:      BNE 5795 Biblioteca Digital Hispánica

Qq:    Escorial Z-III-3 (vulgar)

R:      Palacio Real II-2038 (primera redacción, E, CVR)

Ss:     Caja Duero Salamanca, Ms.40. Images in this edition

St:     Stockholm, Biblioteca Real, D.1262.a (vulgar)

T:      Biblioteca de Menéndez Pelayo M-550 Códice s.14, Texto primera redacción/ vulgar, 1274/89) Images in this edition.

To:    Biblioteca de Castilla-La Mancha 104 (vulgar)

U:      Universidad Complutense 158 ( frag., 1289, primitiva) Biblioteca Histórica, UCM

Uu:    BNE 645 (primera redacciónBiblioteca Digital Hispánica

V1:    BNE 1343 (primera redacción)   Images at Biblioteca Digital Hispánica

V2:    BNE 1277 (primera redacción, fragmentaria, 1289). Images at Biblioteca Digital Hispánica (Mss/1277)

Vv:    BNE 8213 (Tol Rom. más primera redacción) Images at Biblioteca Digital Hispánica (from folio 101r.)

X:      BNE 10213/10214 (primera redacción- C más frag.)

Xx:    BNE 7583 (fragmentaria/1289) Images at Biblioteca Digital Hispánica

Y:      Escorial Y-II-11 (primera redacción, 1274, primera redacción)

Z:      Escorial X-I-7 (primera redacción, 1274, primera redacción)



Codicological descriptions of the manuscripts employed in this edition


E1 Biblioteca del Real Monasterio de San Lorenzo de El Escorial Y-I-2

Manuscript E1 is the only extant codex of the Estoria which was composed in the court of Alfonso. The following brief descriptions made by Inés Fernández-Ordóñez (based on her own research and the detailed work of Diego Catalán) offer an overall picture of the manuscript:

E1 Biblioteca del Monasterio de San Lorenzo, El Escorial: manuscrito Y-I-2. Códice del siglo XIII procedente del scriptorium de Alfonso X. Base del primer volumen de la edición de la Primera Crónica General realizada por Menéndez Pidal (1906, 19552, 19773), contiene la primera redacción de la Estoria de España (hacia 1270-1274), de la que es el representante más cercano al arquetipo pese a no estar exento de pequeños errores de copia. Su texto comprende actualmente desde el prólogo hasta el fin del señorío de Pelayo (capítulo 565), aunque originalmente abarcaba hasta la mitad del reinado de Alfonso II (capítulo 616, página 350a10), antes de que se separaran de él los dos últimos cuadernos para formar el códice E2 a mediados del siglo XIV. Pese a la opinión tradicional de que todo el manuscrito era de la misma mano, en su transcripción intervinieron varios copistas (Catalán, 1997). Consta actualmente de 197 folios de pergamino (416 x 290 mm.), a dos columnas, aunque también le pertenecían los folios 2 a 17 del manuscrito E2 antes de que fuesen desgajados para constituir ese códice facticio. El fol. 197 fue añadido en el siglo XIV para copiar las 34 primeras líneas que habían sido raspadas del folio 197 original (actualmente fol. 2 de E2) a las que se añadió una nota. (PCG, página 320b8-11) remitiendo a E2. Ricamente iluminado, E1 incluye 6 miniaturas en los 7 primeros folios, además de iniciales miniadas en color con decoración fitomórfica y zoomórfica. En el resto del volumen se suceden las iniciales decoradas con rasgos caligráficos en rojo, azul y morado, y se reservó hueco para miniaturas al principio de los reinados. La iluminación no se terminó como revela la falta de algunos epígrafes y los espacios reservados para las miniaturas. Descripciones en Zarco (1926: II, 50-51), Menéndez Pidal (19552: LVII-LVIII), Gómez Pérez (1963: 268-269, n.º 12), todas ellas superadas por la de Catalán (1962: 440-441; 1997: 485-486). Las miniaturas han sido estudiadas por Domínguez (1980, 1989).[1]

In addition to these works, a number of others on the codex, most especially by Rosa Rodríguez Porto and Laura Fernández, but there remains no complete codicological description of the manuscript and its constitution.[2]

Physical description and text box:

The manuscript was examined by Aengus Ward in April 2016. As noted by Fernández-Ordóñez, it is a large codex (416 x 290 mm.) written in Gothic script on vellum. The text box is regular throughout, and can be seen quite clearly on many folios (e.g. 145r). Double vertical lines on the inner and outer edge of the text box are matched by three vertical lines in the centre to form two columns of the same width with ample margins. Horizontal lines run from the outer margin of the folio to the inner margin at lines 1, 26 and 50 – generally the last line in all of the folios. Rubrics are picked out in red and there are several illuminations, and many incomplete illuminations for which space has been left. Initials are generally decorated in alternating patterns of predominantly blue and red designs; typically between 4 and six lines high, although some are larger in places and others have not been realised.


No detailed study of the binding was possible in the time available.


Collation: 2 loose leaves, 1-58, 62, 7-88, 94, 10-268.

Two loose leaves:

Two leaves of thick vellum begin the codex proper. It was not possible to see if they form a single quire, but it is possible that this is not the case and that they are two loose leaves sewn together as the second appears to be thinner than the first. The recto of the first folio contains a fragment of the chapter list for the chronicle in a later hand; the verso contains the famous image of Alfonso’s court –“lamentablemente dañada” in the words of Fernández (2010)- and has been the object of multiple studies. The second folio contains the prologue of the Estoria, written in the hand typical of the rest of the chronicle. It is also noticeable that the first folio is approximately 2cm wider than the second and that at one point the extreme edge of the first folio was folded back to make it fit with the remainder of the codex. The image has been rubbed (or perhaps deliberately erased) in places and the folio suffers from some wrinkling especially in the central section towards the fold. There are also numerous small holes, probably due to insect damage, especially in the lower margin of the folio.

The second folio suffers from many of the same small holes (especially in column b, lines 10-11 and in the bottom margin) but not all of them, which perhaps suggests that some of the insect damage occurred before the two folios were put together. This folio also suffered a tear, later repaired, in the region of 10 lines from the bottom of column b. The subsequent mark has been disguised with a decorative drawing. The red ink for this design appears to be the same as that which makes up the decorative initial on the verso side of the folio; if this is indeed the case, the damage must therefore have occurred at the time of composition. The folio is also slightly stained and the upper part of the right column is rubbed, mirroring similar damage on the opening of the next gathering.

The folio which contains the prologue has pilcrows picked out in alternating blue and red; the following quires use the pilcrow much more sparingly. The alternating red/blue initials of the kingdoms of Alfonso do not appear again; all of which may suggest that this folio was composed separately from the quires which immediately follow it. On the recto there is a later manicule indicating the phrase “y otrosi por la pereza que es el enemigo del saber” and on the verso there is a brief note is a much later hand.

Quire 1: octavo, fols. 3r-10v The quire contains multiple miniatures (v. Rodríguez Porto). Fernández-Ordóñez notes an abrupt change of hand in folio 8ra 21 (2010: 197) while also noting that the decoration of the quire is contant; perhaps suggesting that the scribe and decorators worked in parallel.
Quire 2: quarto, fols. 11r-14v This quire, a rare quarto in the chronicle, corresponds to the beginning of the “Estoria de los romanos”; the index to which it was probably designed to contain. Folio 11 (along with the first 7 lines of 12r) and 14v and the only parts of the quire which contain the 13th century text. The list of chapters ends in PCG 111 (Chapter XXX), which appears to be a textual boundary (Catalán: ref). Folios 12r-13v contain a list of chapters in a later hand. The text of the first of these chapters “De como el poder de los romanos entro en España” begins in folio 14v. A vertical catchword “alos otros” in contemproary hand appears at the foot of the folio in the right margin of the second column. Folios 12 and 13 are wider than 11 and 14 as they have not been guillotined.
Quire 3: octavo, fols. 15r-22v From the first column of this quire, the codex lacks miniatures. The first two lines are a continuation of 14v, but from this moment there appears to be a change of scribe as the tironian sign disappears completely (until folio 34r). Catchword (“todos cõta”) in the usual place; the equivalent word at the outset of 23r “contra” is not abbreviated
Quire 4: octavo, fols. 23r-30v The catchword (“cobdiciare[mos]”) has been guillotined. On folio 27r there is a manicule in the form of a sword on the bottom margin of the first column and 29r has various drawings in the right margin.
Quire 5: octavo, fols. 31r-38v Folio 34 contains various items of interest. 34r has a manicule at the foot of column b. The lines at 34va 15-16 are written over an erasure, and it is from this moment that the tironian sign reappears. The decorative initials in (and especially the “p” in column a) are larger than before. The words “por que” in faded ink appear at the lower parte of column a. The catchword on folio 38v (“De cuemo”) is written in red ink as it corresponds to the incipit of the rubric which begins folio 39r; which suggests a high degree of co-ordination between those responsable for the decorative and rubric writing and the scribes of the chronicle text – assuming they were not the same.
Quire 6: bifolium, fols. 39r-40v Although the quire is shorter than the rest, its material appearance is the same and it seems to be contemporaneous with the remainder of the chronicle and not a later addition. Almost the entirety of 40v is blank, with the exception of the first 3 lines and a catchword (“De las cõqistas”) in red ink (see 5 above).
Quire 7: octavo, fols. 41r-48v A complete quire which has all of the decorative initials completed and in which there are no spaces for miniatures. The catchword (“guerra”) appears in the usual place.
Quire 8: octavo, fols. 49r-56v This is the final quire corresponding to the first textual block described by Menéndez Pidal y Catalán. The catchword (“Po[npeyo?]”) appears in the usual place in red ink, although it has been guillotined.
Quire 9: quarto, fols. 57r-60v This quire appears to be incomplete, as from the first line of 58v there are no pilcrows -although the scribe had left space for them. The decorative initials are more extensive than previously was the case; however, the final two -on folio 60- are missing. The catchword (“pues q~ Iulio”) is in black ink, whereas the corresponding text on 61r is a rubric and therefore in red.
Quire 10: octavo, fols. 61r-68v In contrast to the previous quire (which may therefore be an exception to the general rule) decorative initials are in blue and red ink. The catchword (“Del Jmper[io]”, guillotined) is in black ink, as for quire 9.
Quire 11: octavo, fols. 69r-76v Perhaps through oversight, the red pilcrows in folios 69r and 76v (that is, the external sides of the outer bifolio) are missing, although the blue pilcrows are present. The alternating pattern of blue and red is also broken twice in 69v and 70r, perhaps suggesting that this quire was less carefully compiled that the others. The catchword (“Enel qrrto”) is in black ink and corresponds to the first line of the next chapter and not the rubric which starts the quire; this may indicate the rubric had not yet been placed there before the finalising of quire 11.
Quire 12: octavo, fols. 77r-84v Catchword in the usual position (“Qua[ndo]”), guillotined.
Quire 13: octavo, fols. 85r-92v This quire presents more marginal notes than the others: in 85v there is a comment on the Pantheon in Rome which “dizese agora S.M. Redõda”, and on 87r there is a note corresponding to a reference in the text to the birthplace of Trajan: “:. otros dize qd Pedriza dela Sierra açerca”. On folio 89r there are two manicules: one to highlight the merits of Trajan and another which points to the phrase “el sennorio nolo deue auer omne por linage. mas por merecimientos”. The catchword “E sant” appears in the usual place. Folio 92 has been damaged, though this was subsequently repaired. The foliation in Roman numerals on 88r (top right corner) repeats and as a result all of the subsequent Roman foliation is awry.
Quire 14: octavo, fols. 93r-100v The catchword “de lo rogar” appears in the usual place. In folio 96v “De lo del Segundo año” is written over an erasure.
Quire 15: octavo, fols.101r-108v. Until the beginning of folio 106r (that is, the first half of the quire) all of the rubrics beginning chaters are missing. This quire has numerous spaces left blank for illuminations. The catchword (“Dioclecian[o]”) has been guillotined.
Quire 16: octavo, fols.109r-116v. From this quire, a red line is used to mark (some) structural divisions in the text (e.g. end of 116va). The catchword (“en q~ uinies[se]”) has been guillotined.
Quire 17: octavo, fols.117r-124v There is a large (contemporary?) manicule in 117rb highlighting the phrase “enel nõbre de ihesu xpo que sabe las cosas q sõ uerdaderas te digo philosopho…” The catchword (“la podrie”) appears in the usual place.
Quire 18: octavo. fols.125r-132v. This quire contains the beginning of two major structural divisions in the text; la “Estoria delos vuandalos etc.” and the “Estoria delos godos”. The list of chapters in folios 126v/127r corresponds to the 21 internal chapter divisions that follow, and the rubrics in the text carry Roman numerals at their end. The character of the decoration appears to change somewhat in the quire, especially on the left margin of some of the folios. The catchword (“& valetiniano”) appears in the usual place, in red ink similar to that of the list of chapters.
Quire 19: octavo. fols.133r-140v. The list of chapters continues from the previous quire and ends in the first column of 133r; folios 133v-134v, immediately following the list, are left blank. In the same manner as the “Estoria de los vuandalos etc.” in quire 18, the first four chapters of the “Estoria delos godos” carry Roman numerals following the rubric; from the fifth chapter onwards the numerals do not appear, although space has been left for them. The catchword “en tiempo[o]” appears, guillotined, in the usual place.
Quire 20: octavo fols.141r-148v The catchword (“e tanto”) appears in the usual place.
Quire 21: octavo fols.149r-156v Almost the entirety of folio 152v has been left blank. It is unlikely that all of this space is for a miniature, although this is a textual frontier; the first year of the reign of Alaric begins at the start of folio 153r. According to Inés Fernández-Ordóñez there is a change of hand from folio 155v. The catchword “Athalarigo” appears in the usual place.
Quire 22: octavo fols.157r-164v Folio 164 suffered some damage, which was later repaired. The catchword “q ende” appears in the usual place.
Quire 23: octavo fols.165r-172v The external parte of folio 170 was damaged at one point, and this appears to have been repaired with a patch. There is a manicule in folio 171ra indicating the phrase “dixo a aquellos moros q estauan y con el q por agua serien saluos & aurien perdon de sus pecados”. The catchword “rio el papa” appears in the usual place.
Quire 24: octavo fols.173r-180v The catchword “non te” appears in the usual place.
Quire 25: octavo fols.181r-188v The catchword “prisol &” appears in the usual place.
Quire 26 octavo fols.189r-196v The catchword “grand” appears in the usual place.


E2 Biblioteca del Monasterio de San Lorenzo, El Escorial: manuscrito X-I-4.

The following description is based previous research as detailed below and on personal inspection by Enrique Jerez Cabrero, Ricardo Pichel Gotérrez and Aengus Ward in December 2015 and April 2016.

Physical description and text box:

E2 is a composite manuscript put together in the first half of the 14th century in the reign of Alfonso XI (before 1344), probably by Fernán Sánchez de Valladolid and which joins material from the last third of the 13th century and first and second quarters of the 14th century with the aim of completing the unfinished Alfonsine original. It is comprised of 359 folios of parchment (420 x 312 mm) in two columns. On folio 1r there is the famous Alfonsine miniature, representing a king with a sword in his hand and accompanied by two pages. On folio 2r there is a 14th century note referring back to manuscript E1. Between folios 2rb-17 (E2a) are the two 13th century quires which originally formed part of E1. Folios 18-22 (E2b) and 321-359 (E2f, which contains the Crónica particular de San Fernando) are in the same hand. Folios 23-198 (E2c, with a brief 14th century interpolation on folios 80-81 of the Leyenda de la condesa traidora) and 257-320 (E2e) provide the original text of the Versión amplificada de 1289 and were copied by the same late 13th century scribe. The final remaining section of the manuscript 200-256v (E2d), which transmits the narration of the Valencian doings of El Cid, was copied by a scribe in the second quarter of the 14th century and is notable for its rough blue and red initials.

The most complete description to date is in Fernández-Ordóñez, which we repeat here:

Códice facticio compuesto a mediados del siglo XIV en época de Alfonso XI (después de 1321 y antes de 1344), probablemente por Fernán Sánchez de Valladolid, empalmando materiales de diversas épocas, para dar continuación al incompleto manuscrito original del scriptorium de Alfonso X, E1, según ha demostrado Catalán pormenorizadamente y sin dejar lugar a la duda (1962, 1997). Base del segundo volumen de la edición pidalina de la Estoria de España (PCG), su despiece es el siguiente:

fol. 1r: Miniatura de tiempos de Alfonso XI representando a un rey con espada en mano, sentado en un trono y rodeado de dos pajes, y título en rojo (PCG, página 321).

fol. 2ra: Nota añadida en el siglo XIV remitiendo al volumen E1 (PCG, página 321a1-16).

fols. 2rb-17: E2a. Esta mano está constituida por los dos primeros cuadernos, que originalmente formaban parte del códice E1, del que fueron segregados para formar artificiosamente E2. Letra del siglo XIII idéntica a la empleada en E1 desde el fol. 155v en adelante. El texto copiado por esta mano comprende hasta mediados del reinado de Alfonso II (capítulo 616) y puede leerse desde PCG, página 321a20 a página 350a10.

fols. 18-22: E2b. Letra de mediados del siglo XIV, idéntica a E2f, de la que es contemporánea y en la que coincide en la iluminación de iniciales y peculiaridades gráficas. El texto transcrito por esta mano conserva el final del reinado de Alfonso II (PCG, página 350a10-358b37) y deriva de la primera redacción aunque incluye numerosos errores particulares.

fols. 23-79, 82-198vc: E2c. Manuscrito del siglo XIII que contiene el texto original de la Versión amplificada de 1289 desde Ramiro I hasta el año 25 de Alfonso VI (PCG, pp. 358b39-426a18 [fols. 23-79], pp. 429a39-565a29 [fols. 82-198]).

fols. 80-81: Mano de un corrector del siglo XIV que copió la Leyenda de la condesa traidora (PCG, capítulos 729-732, página 426a25-429a37) en los dos folios originalmente en blanco de E2c.

fols. 200-256vc: E2d. Mano de mediados del siglo XIV, iniciales toscas en rojo y azul, que transcribió un relato sobre la historia valenciana del Cid basado, primero, en la traducción alfonsí de Ibn Alqama, después, en una refundición del Poema de Mio Cid amañada en Cardeña, la Estoria caradignense del Cid. La creación de ese texto tuvo que ser anterior a principios del siglo XIV, ya que fue fuente de la Crónica abreviada y de la Crónica de Castilla. El relato puede leerse desde PCG, página 565b1 a página 643b7.

fols. 257-320: E2e El copista es el mismo que en E2c, del siglo XIII, y transcribe igualmente la Versión amplificada de 1289 desde el año 42 de Alfonso VI hasta comenzado el reinado de Fernando III (PCG, pp. 643b9-719a42).

fols. 321-359: E2f. Letra de mediados del siglo XIV, probablemente la misma que E2b, que transcribe la Crónica particular de San Fernando.

Consta de 359 folios de pergamino (420 x 312 mm.), a dos columnas. Un corrector del siglo XIV realizó diversas enmiendas e interpolaciones sobre E2c: aparte de pequeños retoques, interpoló la Leyenda de la condesa traidora en los fols. 80-81 (PCG, pp. 426a20-429a37), y añadió un párrafo en el fol. 101v (PCG, p. 453b17-29) y otro en el fol. 102r (página 454a27-37) para completar ciertos detalles de esa leyenda; además, completó la historia de los reyes de Aragón añadiendo sendas notas sobre Alfonso I el Batallador en el fol. 123r (página 476a50, nota), sobre Ramiro el Monje en el fol. 124v (página 477b50, nota), y sobre la conquista de Mallorca en el fol. 124r (página 480a21, nota). Dan noticia del manuscrito Menéndez Pidal (19713: 384), Zarco (1929: III, 2), Franklin (1938), Menéndez Pidal (19552: LVIII-LIX) y Gómez Pérez (1963: 268-269, n.º 12), descripciones que pueden juzgarse obsoletas tras las proporcionadas por Catalán, tanto desde el punto de vista codicológico como textual (1962: 441-442; 1997: 485-486).

The sections of the manuscript composed in the 13th century are the most regular. These sections are thought to be from the royal scriptorium, and therefore bear most similarity to E1. The text box is regular throughout, although the text is comprised of only 40 lines, and can be seen frequently (e.g. 263r). It does not appear to have the same mid-line ruling as E1, either horizontally or vertically. The rubrics are uniformly picked out in red and the pilcrows alternate in colour between red and blue. Chapter explicits are often also picked out in red. Many chapters begin with a space for an illumination but with the exception of the opening the 1289 section, none are complete. Initials on these chapters are also often missing although the illumination title is often present (see 77v/78r for all of this). The principal fourteenth century additions are less carefully composed; have rubrics in red, but less worked initials and only red pilcrows (where they are entered). The later stages also have 40 lines per column, but the number of lines varies elsewhere, even across columns in the case of folios 18-22.

Collation: 1 loose leaf(?), 1-28, 34 + 1, 4-258, 262, 27-338, 344 + 1 leaf, 3510, 36-478.

Modern foliation has been added in the upper right corner of the folios; quires are numbered on the bottom left in Roman numerals.

Quire 1: Octavo 2r-9v The first of two quires detached from what is now E1 it is identical in form to these. Catchword: “autoridad” in the usual place. The erasures and addition to folio 2r which were made to ensure a fit with E1 have been closely studied by Fernández-Ordóñez.
Quire 2: Octavo 10r-17v Identical in format to Quire 1. Catchword “por tod”
Quire 3. 18r-22v This quire is the additional text added in the fourteenth century to bridge the gap between the end of E1orig and the beginning of the 1289 text. The last folio is left blank, and there is no catchword. It was not possible to examine the exact stitching/composition of the quire.
Quire 4: Octavo 23r-30v This quire is the opening of the 1289 text in a late 13th century hand. The opening illumination has been studied by Rodríguez Porto, and others. The hand is larger than for E1. A catchword “.&.vi” appears at the foot of the page, but in the middle of the folio; this is the standard position for the 1289 sections.
Quire 5: Octavo 31r-38v The second 1289 quire seems to have suffered significant insect damage in places. Catchword “.Andados.” in the usual place.
Quire 6: Octavo 39r-46v Catchword “.tello.” in the usual place. Major spaces have been left in the 2nd half of the quire for illuminations that were not realised and also for end of chapter rubrics.
Quire 7: Octavo 47r-54v Catchword “.pocos.” in the usual place.
Quire 8: Octavo 55r-62v Catchword “a” in the usual place.
Quire 9: Octavo 63r-70v Catchword “.uinie.” in the usual place.
Quire 10: Octavo 71r-78v No catchword.
Quire 11: 78r-85v Catchword “pieron” in the usual place. This gathering includes the two folios 80-81 written in a later hand but which are all part of same quire.
Quire 12: Octavo 86r-93v Catchword “este Rey” in the usual place. There has been an attempt to erase the rubric “Caplo delas mugieres q ouo este Rey don Ramiro” at the end of the column.
Quire 13: Octavo 94r-101v. No catchword. This final column of the quire is completed with note in another hand, similar to that of 80/81, and which supplies text missing from the end of the chapter.
Quire 14: Octavo 102r-109v: Catchword “.uez.” in the usual place. The quire numbering disappears at this point. A modern hand has corrected previous foliation. 120 110
Quire 15: Octavo 110r-117v Catchword “.nin.” in the usual place. 3 major spaces are left for end rubrics and illuminations in the second half of the quire.
Quire 16: Octavo 118r-125v Catchword “.Et con.” in the usual place. As with the previous quire, the second half of the gathering has (5) spaces for illuminations and unfilled columns corresponding to chapter breaks. There are also two major marginal notes here in an early hand, both of which concern kings of Aragon.
Quire 17: Octavo 126r-133v Catchword “desamparar” in the usual place. The central pages of the quire (129v/130r) are either blank or have missing illuminations.
Quire 18: Octavo 134r-141v Catchword “-xoles” in the usual place. As before, in the second half of the quire there is a missing illumination: 140v-141r.
Quire 19: Octavo 142r-149v Catchword “esto dixo” in the usual place.
Quire 20: Octavo 150r-157v Catchword “acordaron” in the usual place. The verso of the final folio of the quire is stained.
Quire 21: Octavo 158r-165v Catchword “aluar” in the usual place. The absence of space for illuminations in the chapter headings is almost certainly due to the subject matter -el Cid- and hence the absence of new reigns.
Quire 22: Octavo 166r-173v: Catchword “segudolos” in the usual place. The initials in this quire are very decorated, and like the pilcrows they reverse the red/blue colour scheme each time.
Quire 23: Octavo 174r-181v Catchword “de arteria” in the usual place: The Latin text in 176v/177r is picked out in red. 178rb has and erasure and the word “Roma” inserted in a later hand.
Quire 24: Octavo 182r-189v Catchword “.con.” in the usual place. 182ra has an erasure and “bie creemos” added in a later hand. 182v Latin text maintains the principle of red ink for Latin. A substantial addition in a contemporary hand has been made at the end of 189rb by extending the text box. This addition supplies omitted text and as constituted it fits perfectly into the sentence in question.
Quire 25: Octavo 190r-197v Catchword “cos” in the usual place.
Quire 26: Bifolium 198r-199v The second folio is blank, and the catchword “et tornosse todo” in the usual place but now at the very bottom of the folio. The 1289 text ends at the bottom of 198va and is completed by a later hand in all of b column. Folio 199 is entirely blank apart from the catchword but it is lined for writing. E2e, quire 35 below, begins with a rubric and new chapter and not the catchword text.
Quire 27: Octavo 200r-207v This quire opens the 14th century Cid material and is therefore materially different to the previous quire although the scribe has made an attempt to fit in with the style of the previous text. Pilcrows alternate in colour and initials also alternate in colour though not as well drawn. The catchword “que mi cid” is in the usual place mid-folio, adorned with a decorative surround, and is in red ink as befits red text following.
Quire 28: Octavo 208r-215v Catchword “la plitesia” in the usual place (“la pleytesia” expanded in next column).
Quire 29: Octavo 216r-223v. Catchword “mayor & la ” in the usual place.
Quire 30: Octavo 224r-231v Catchword “de carriõ” in the usual place.
Quire 31: Octavo 232r-239v Catchword “nos dize” in the usual place.
Quire 32: Octavo 240r-247v Catchword “nos podia” in the usual place.
Quire 33: Quarto 248r-251v The first of two quarto quires, this appears to have been configured to accommodate the insertion of the Cid material in the 1289 text. Catchword “Desq todo” in the usual place.
Quire 34: Quarto +1 252r-256v After end of Cid section, 256va, it is presumed that a folio was blank. The blank folio has been cut away leaving 252r orphaned, and sewn in separately to the quire.
Quire 35. 257r-262v Beginning of E2e, therefore a return to the 1289 text. Catchword “del Rey” at the foot of the folio but now below column b, unlike the previous 1289 practice. The gathering suffers from several deletions and also contains space for illuminations. The quire is shorter than others of the style, perhaps accommodated by the longer quire 36 that follows.
Quire 36 263r-272v The catchword “del Regnado” is in the usual place but in a later hand (?) and in different coloured ink. There is significant later marginalia throughout the quire, and the recto of the last folio of the gathering is almost completely blank.
Quire 37: Octavo 273r-280v Catchword “Batalla” in the usual place. The opening half of the quire has significant marginalia and also space for unrealised illuminations. Folio 273r has a modern note in blue ink at the bottom of scribal marginalia referring back to folio 271 in the previous quire, which itself has a scribal note on the same subject.
Quire 38: Octavo 281r-288v No catchword, though there is significant later marginal note on 288v. One unrealised illumination appears on 284v.
Quire 39: Octavo 289r-296v Catchword “a los otros” in the usual place. Folio 291v has extensive marginalia which as been subsequently truncated/guillotined; 289r also has scribal marginalia.
Quire 40: Octavo 297r-304v Catchword “to ante todos” in the usual place.
Quire 41: Octavo 305r-312v Catchword “sassen” in the usual place. Major space for illuminations has been left on folios 310v-311r.
Quire 42: Octavo 313r-320v Folio 315r/v is lined but not used; the text is interrupted before the burial of Enrique I and recommences after the lacuna on 316r with Fernando III and an unrealised illumination. The quire ends with a catchword “sancta” in the usual place, but as this is the end of the 1289 text it is not clear what would have come next; the 14th century addition follow in the next quire.
Quire 43: Octavo 321r-328v The beginning of the 14th century text corresponding to the Crónica Particular de San Fernando. The first rubric is written over an erasure, and there is a small space for an initial illumination. The initials are less well executed than in the 1289 text, although an attempt has been made to adorn them. There is no catchword.
Quire 44: Octavo 329r-336v No catchword. These folios have very different initials to those of the rest of E2 and the pilcrows appear only in red.
Quire 45: Octavo 337r-344v Catchword “algo” in the usual place just below text box.
Quire 46: Octavo 345r-352v Catchword “costubre era” in the usual place, although this appears to be a different hand.
Quire 47: Last quire of the chronicle; the final folio is a guard sheet.


 Q (BNE 5795)

Examined in person by Ricardo Pichel Gotérrez and Aengus Ward over the course of 2015/6.

Manuscript from the first half of the 14th century (probably the second quarter) composed of 178 folios on parchment (305 x 205 mm) in two columns, gathered in 18 quires, all of which are regular gatherings of five folios, with the exception of quire 11, which is missing the external bifolio (folios 100bis and 108bis). The codex is in good condition, with the possible exception of the external folios which are slightly worn and other local minor damage (small tears, water stains, small areas of faded ink etc.).

The manuscript has interfasicular catchwords and all of the quires are identified by Roman numerals. The alphabetic system of marks, which appear in the bottom external corner of the recto sides of folios is especially interesting as Q has up to five levels of identification of the order of quires (e.g. a, bb, ccc, dddd, aaaaa).

In contrast to T, ms. Q is extremely regular graphically, structurally and ornamentally; there appears to have been one calligrapher throughout. In addition to the decorative elements (rubrics are picked out in red), Q has pilcrows and initials with calligraphic decoration in red and blue. There are various marginal notes, of which three 15th century quintillas de amor a una dama are especially noteworthy (fol. 150v).

 T (Biblioteca de Menéndez Pelayo 550)

Examined in person by Ricardo Pichel Gotérrez over the course of 2016.

Manuscript traditionally dated at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries, although examination of the hand and other codicological information suggests a dates in the second half of the 14th century. The codex is comprised of 203 folios of parchment (310 x 245 mm) in two columns, gathered in 23 quires. The majority of these are five-bifolio gatherings with the exception of 7, 9, 10 and 14 (octavo); 11 (three bifolios) and 1 and 23 (bifolia); 22 has five bifolia gathered with an additional folio at the end which is really part of 23. There are at least 4 folios missing: the external bifolium of el quire 10 (folios 110bis and 118bis) and an internal bifolium in quire 23 (folios 199bis and 201bis); this quire probably also is missing a further folio (201ter) which would be the right half of the external bifolium, and therefore the final folio of the manuscript.

Prior to the restoration carried out in the Instituto del Patrimonio Cultural Español in 2016, the manuscript was in a relatively poor state, particularly with regard to the binding which had been preserved to that point (the central and outer quires of the manuscript were completely detached) and to the state of the parchment (areas with faded and worn ink, wrinkling, local tears etc.). Throughout the codex, the external bifolium of certain quires had been reinforced in their internal side with short strips of parchment taken from a contemporary manuscript written in Latin.

The manuscript has regular interfasicular catchwords placed there by the two copyists who composed it. There are also visible in some quires intrafascicular catchwords, in a more cursive hand (possibly from the 15th century), which probably served as a guide for the sewing and re-binding of the volume. Curiously, some of these are counter-catchwords as they appear on the recto side of folios and reproduce the end of the previous verso.

There is no scribal foliation or pagination, with the sole exception of the final three quires (folios 184-201) where there is visible a post-medieval (possibly 16th century?) foliation en Roman numerals, placed on the front of the folios concerned and strangely running from the back forwards. Modern foliation is in pencil, however the numbers 69 and 100 are repeated (here numbered 69bis and 100bis respectively), which has led to an erroneous folio count of 201, when in fact the codex contains 203 folios.

The manuscript has some decoration on certain structural elements of the text (rubrics and pilcrows in red, initials in red and blue/purple). Especially notable is the ornamentation of large initial capitals in the second part of the manuscript (from 92 onwards); each section corresponding to a new reign begins with a sequence of alternating blue and red capitals with large initials adorned with calligraphic effects.

The codex has many corrections and marginal notes, both contemporary and post medieval. OF this, of particular note is the systematic scraping and erasure by a later reader of all of the cases of the word tuerto, which are then replaced by a range of other equivalents (mal, talante, daño, injuria, agravio, sin guisa, sin razon, etc.)

 Ss (Biblioteca de la Caja de Ahorros de Salamanca ms. 40)

Members of the Estoria Digital team were unable to examine this manuscript in person.

Manuscript composed in the 15th century and comprising 325 folios of paper (358×260 mm) in two columns. The first folio is missing The presence of rubrics, added in red by a later hand, is very irregular, as is the presence of decorative initials. The text was corrected and annotated widely by two further early hands using an exemplar of the versión primitiva.

Min (Biblioteca de la Universidad de Minnesota Z946.02/fC88I)

Manuscript examined in person by Aengus Ward, September 2016.

Manuscript from the beginning of the 15th century, initially comprised of 547 folios on paper (280 x 215 mm) in two columns. Acquired by the University of Minnesota in the early 1950s from Krauss booksellers, already in a very deteriorated condition. Rubrics are picked out in red and alternating red and coloured initials.

Fernández-Ordóñez’s description is as follows:

1-11v Tabla incompleta

1r-v Prefacio característico

1vb-498r Hermano de Z. Contiene la primera redacción hasta el comienzo del reinado de Alarico copiada de E1 (1v-301r; PCG 434). Omite lo que sigue, empalmando con el reinado de Atanagildo (301-307v; PCG 460) hasta el de Liuba donde se interrumpe por pérdida de numerosos folios. En esta sección coincide con la primera redacción, pero no con Z. Su texto se reanuda en Fruela I (436r; PCG 592) y ahora desciende de un modelo común a T, G y Z que deriva de la primera redacción sin los errores propios de E1 y al que Min sigue hasta el final del reinado de Alfonso IV (PCG 682). Ese prototipo copió de E2, VA1289, desde el reinado de Ramiro I hasta el año 1 de Alfonso III (460-467v; PCG 629-645).

498r-547v: cambia de prototipo, siguiendo a CVR desde el ultimo capítulo de Alfonso IV (PCG 682).


In fact the manuscript now comprises 482 unbound sides, thus 241 folios. Rubrics are frequently faded. Alternating colour initials are frequent though the manuscript but the characteristic small capitals to begin chapter text disappear in the lacuna between folios 307 and 436. Such binding as exists is a curious sewn binding. The leaves are all singular, perhaps because the binding has come apart. Some gatherings are still intact.


The initial folios comprise an index and are incomplete and in the wrong order -indeed it is not clear that this index corresponds directly to the text of the manuscript. Modern foliation on the foot of the opening pages is in the order folios are currently found and not in the original order. The opening of the chronicle proper is on the 12th folio of the codex and is the characteristic prologue, but it is preceded by another prologue which is not in E1 but which is an integral part of Min.

There are two modern folio numbers on the manuscript. The first of these begins with the chronicle proper and is marked as folio 1. The foliation gives us an idea of what is missing from the chronicle. The foliation suggests that the chronicle is complete up to 12v, corresponding to chapter 20/9. The next folio is numbered 42, and corresponds to chapter 71/6. Fol. 53v has a catchword, but folio 54 is missing and the next folio is numbered 55. The foliation also suggests that the following have also been lost: fols. 65-69, 75-77, 89-112, 158 (157v has catchwords) and 167-191. There is an error in foliation subsequently as 201 is repeated. Subsequently, 203-204 are missing, as are 214-215. The foliation then passes from 229-300, but this does not indicate missing folios but rather confusion between 229 and 299 on the part of the person who added the foliation as the text is continuous here. The foliation continues to 307 (corresponding to images 323-324) at which point the number leaps to 436, and it is at this point that the second foliation begins at number 295. The gap corresponds to chapter 488 (PCG 479) and the text resumes in chapter 603 (PCG 592).

Subsequently, the following folios are missing: 440-443, 447-448 (446 has a catchword), 458-459, 468-469, 479-489, 491-492, 503, 515 and 532.

One curiosity is the fragment which currently is placed between folios 121 and 123 (images 139/140). A review of the text in the top fragment, which is attached to the binding, reveals that it does indeed correspond to this position, and to the folio number of 122. However, the bottom, larger, fragment does not, and actually corresponds to text from the lacuna between 307 and 436. Furthermore, although the foliation is continuous, the existence of the folio number away from its accustomed place and the fact that there is a textual gap here (corresponding to 176/18-181/3) tells us that the foliation was placed here after this particular gap was made. Unlike other textual lacunae, which show a skip in the foliation, this tear was clearly present when the foliation was put there.

In the light of all of this, it is recommendable to use the image numbers from the Minnesota site as a consistent method of reference to the text of Min.

 Y (Escorial Y-II-11)

Manuscript examined in person by Enrique Jerez Cabrero in December 2015.

Manuscript composed in the 15th century and comprising 461 folios of paper (287 x 215 mm) in two columns. At least 8 folios have been lost (66, 167, 179, 199, 200, 305, 346, 435) in addition to those which have fallen from the end of the manuscript. Space has been reserved, but not filled, for initials and rubrics. Of particular note is the fact that the first 12 folios the text was copied translated into Catalan.




[1] Inés Fernández-Ordóñez, “La transmisión textual de la “Estoria de Espanna” y de las principales “Crónicas” de ella derivadas”, in Inés Fernández-Ordóñez (ed.) Alfonso el Sabio y las crónica de España, (Valladolid: Universidad de Valladolid, Centro para la Edición de los Clásicos Españoles, 2000), pp.219-260 (242).

[2] Rodriguez Porto, Fernandez