September Update

The launch and conference in December will soon be upon us, and the Estoria team has been hard at work on both the edition and our Impact activities.

The HRI in Sheffield has begun to produce our exhibition and teaching materials. A mockup of the opening page currently (but not for long) looks like this:


Enrique has completed the exhibition materials, and although Lauren has now left us to take on her Final Year, she managed the herculean task of translating most of it into English – so a big thank you from all at the Estoria project.

Enrique is in Spain to continue work on the teaching materials and liaise with schools and archives. Aengus is in the US to make arrangements with the University of Minnesota over their part in the exhibition. He also gave a lecture at the Center for Medieval Studies and had the opportunity to examine the Minnesota manuscript at the James Ford Bell library:


The full manuscript is digitised here. A big thank you to Michelle Hamilton and Marguerite Ragnow and all in Minneapolis for the warm welcome and all of the help offered.

Fiona continues at breakneck pace with the tagging of all the prosopographical data in the Estoria, and we hope to have the first prototypes of the maps and ancillary tools available by mid-September.

Meanwhile, Polly, Christian and Ricardo have been completing the regularised versión primitiva, and the irrepressible Polly and Christian have also been correcting part of the edited text  and the collated text with Aengus. And Zeth is working away on the front end and in particular the presentation of the transcriptions (very preliminary sneak preview below) and collated text.

Edition preview

Back to work…!

Preparing the reader’s edition and planning the colloquium

August has been as busy as ever here at Estoria Towers, especially as we are now moving into the last semester of the project before the launch of the digital edition – yes really! Everyone is working on their own part of the project. Aengus is busy collating the witnesses ready for the reader’s edition, as well as flying here, there and everywhere giving talks and lectures on the project and issues related to it. Zeth has been working towards the visualisation of the final edition. Fiona is continuing to work on the table that will allow users to find out more about the people, peoples and places in the edition and Enrique is preparing materials for the public engagement arm of the project, which Lauren is busily translating. Meanwhile, Ricardo, Christian and I have been working through Aengus’ collations and regularising the text ready for the reader’s edition version of the text which will appear alongside the transcriptions, manuscript images, diplomatic and expanded versions of the text.

At our stage of the task, regularising means we are bringing some of the punctuation and capitalisation more into line with what modern readers of Castilian might expect to see and changing some spellings to be more modern. To many purists this is just plain crazy – we are messing with Alfonso’s original text and purposely changing it! Gasp. It does grate at first to modernise and regularise when previously we had been working so hard to transcribe the manuscript text as closely as we possibly could, but the fact is that some readers will prefer a slightly modernised version of the text. Some might choose to use it as a stepping-stone until they get used to reading (semi-)medieval Castilian and choose to move to the versions of the edition that are closer to the original, and some people might be reading only for content so might choose not to read the ‘older’ versions. You could even think about it as a sort of extension of what scribes and readers (remember how many medieval readers would annotate as they read) have been doing for centuries – making a new version of the text and making some changes to the text as they go. We are working hard not to change any content, but we are making some changes to some of the spellings. Part of the regularisation task still makes me want to shudder, but there you have it. As Aengus always reminds us, the reader’s edition will, however, come with strong government health warnings.

As always in the Estoria project, as in Academia in general, there have been long debates in the office as to where is the line where our regularising becomes too much? Here is a simple example: in modern Spanish we are used to word division using good old finger spaces between each word. Not so much in the time of Alfonso – they often had a different idea of where one word ended and another began. When transcribing, our policy was to respect the word division in the image, so if the scribe has written daquel, we wrote daquel. We did not change it to de aquel, as we would write it nowadays. Daquel also has the e of de missing – it has been eaten up to form a contraction. Our policy when regularising is if the contracted vowel is different from the vowel that is still there we add an apostrophe to represent it, so we are regularising to d’aquel. We are not, however, adding an apostrophe where the contracted vowel is the same as one that is still there, such as dellos (de + ellos). Other editors do put an apostrophe here (d’ellos). Cue much debate with many cups of tea and frankly far too few biscuits, but the final decision was the one taken above. Some editors or users of the edition may disagree with some of the editorial decisions such as these – this is an unavoidable occupational hazard of the textual editor.

In other news, the December colloquium arrangements are continuing. We had hoped to be able to open registration by now, but we have faced some administrative challenges with this which coincided with holiday time, so they won’t be sorted out until September. We are really hoping to get registration open by the early autumn, and when we do we will be promoting it left, right and centre, so you will be sure to find out. If you are unsure you are welcome to drop us an email and we will let you know what you need to do and when in order to join us in December! We are hoping to see as many people as possible there. The programme is looking great, lots of interesting papers are planned, and you can read most of the abstracts here already. There are also a few people who we already know are coming but are not speakers, and we are hoping for many more, so the question and answer sessions for each panel and also the coffee breaks and dinners are sure to include lots of lively debates and questions to really make you think, as well as (hopefully) of lots of mulled wine and mince pies, it taking place at Christmas and all (I mean at the dinners, not during morning coffee break…)

As there really is no rest for the lowly PhD student I will leave this post there and return to my ever-looming thesis. Ah who am I kidding, I love it really (at least some of the time).


Professor Emeritus Roger Wright honoured by the Royal Academy of the Spanish Language

Estoria project research fellow Fiona Maguire has written the following blog for the blog of the Modern Languages and Cultures department at the University of Liverpool. It  was first published here on Friday 5th August. Fiona has kindly allowed us to reproduce the text of the blog on our website.


Professor Emeritus Roger Wright honoured by the Royal Academy of the Spanish Language

Modern Languages and Cultures‘ Professor Emeritus Roger Wright has recently been honoured by the Real Academia Española (Royal Academy of the Spanish Language) (RAE), who have conferred membership on him as ‘académico correspondiente extranjero’ (international Academy member).

As Professor of Spanish at the University of Liverpool, Professor Wright gained wide international scholarly renown for his investigations into the evolution of Spanish and other Romance languages and the invention of Medieval Latin; his books include Late Latin and Early Romance in Spain and Carolingian France (1982) and A Sociophilological Study of Late Latin (2003). Professor Wright is also a scholar, translator and performer of the Spanish ballad tradition.

Modern Languages and Cultures now numbers two Spanish Academicians amongst its ranks, a number only equalled or exceeded in UK universities by the University of Oxford (3 Spanish Academicians).

Membership of the RAE was similarly conferred in 2009 on Professor Emerita Dorothy Severin, FSA, hon. OBE, Professor of Spanish at the University of Liverpool, former Gilmour Chair of Spanish (the first established Chair of Spanish in a UK university) and former General Editor of the Bulletin of Hispanic Studies (a scholarly journal devoted to Hispanic studies, founded in 1926 by a member of the Department at the University of Liverpool, where it continues to be published by Liverpool University Press). Professor Severin’s research interests in late Medieval Spanish literature include La Celestina and cancionero studies; her internationally acknowledged scholarly publications include Memory in ‘La Celestina’ (1970), an early study of the uses of cultural memory in literature and the cancionero digital library ‘An E-Library of 15th Century Castilian Cancionero Manuscripts’ (2007-).

Founded in 1713, the scholarly activities of the RAE are devoted to the Spanish language and its literature. The Academy compiles and publishes the Diccionario de la lengua española (the Spanish equivalent of the Oxford English Dictionary) and includes amongst its illustrious members the novelists Javier Marías and Mario Vargas Llosa, together with academic scholars of Spanish, now joined by two Academicians from the University of Liverpool.

Other transcription projects

As part of my PhD research I have been looking at a handful of other transcription projects that use crowdsourcing. Some of our readers might be interested in checking them out so I thought I would put some information about them here.

1. Transcribe Bentham
This is a transcription project over at UCL where volunteers are helping to transcribe the handwritten folios of Jeremy Bentham, who was amongst other things a philosopher and jurist. Their work has been very interesting for me as they also have a crowdsourcing branch as part of a wider project, as we do, but their crowdsourcing is on a much bigger scale than ours, has been going on longer and the publications of analysis and reflection are very interesting. Definitely worth a look. And if you’re that way inclined why not download their new game and have a go at running a prison according to Bentham’s design? I would, but my thesis supervisor is forever cracking the whip.

2. The International Greek New Testament Project – The Gospel According to John
The team behind this are largely based in the same corridor as the Estoria project. They are working towards an edition of the Gospel According to John by transcribing some of the major witnesses. They prefer to use the term ‘volunteer’ rather than ‘crowdsourcer’, but for the most part it is the same thing as what we do, as volunteers sign up, follow a training course and then are let loose on some transcriptions. Their manuscripts are in biblical Greek, so this is not for the faint of heart, but again, it is well worth a look to see what other transcription projects are doing.

3. Revealing Co-operation and Conflict
This project has used a MOOC which first took place in the summer of 2014 to train a largely non-academically active audience to read and transcribe medieval Spanish manuscripts. In just three weeks more than 600 folios were transcribed, and the information has helped the project to build up information about the town of Plasencia in the 15th century. I took this MOOC and it helped me to learn a lot not just about palaeography and transcribing, but about crowdsourcing in general, and it was also where I met Nick who has become the Estoria project’s longest-term and most prolific crowdsourcer. I definitely recommend visiting virtual Plasencia.
Academics from all three of these projects have been extremely helpful in providing me with information about their projects, so if any of them read this I would like to say a big thank you.

The 4th Annual Colloquium of the Estoria de Espanna Digital Project: Programme

It is with great pleasure and excitement that we can now publish the provisional programme of our upcoming colloquium.


Preparations for the colloquium are now well underway, and we are finalising the details to enable us to open the registration process as soon as possible. We hope to see as many people as possible at our fourth annual colloquium which will also see the launch of our digital edition of the Estoria de Espanna.

Brief Update and welcome to Lauren, our newest team member

Although we have been a little quiet of late, work has been continuing at fever pitch on the Estoria project. The launch date of 15th December is fast approaching…
The Impact activities are now in full swing. Enrique is working hard on preparing the digital exhibition and teaching materials. This week we hope to have a first draft of the early versions of both and we will have a look at the prototype of these in the HRI in Sheffield on Friday. The transcription desk is also now at the prototype stage. Fiona is hard at work preparing indices and related tools which will allow a host of exciting ways to access the Estoria.
Polly and Christian are working flat out to get the reader’s edition of the Estoria ready. In this they are aided by Ricardo, who has left us for the other side of the Atlantic but who continues to work on the project.
Aengus is busily collating our versión primitiva and has now made it about half way.

Today we welcome our newest team member: Lauren Brinsdon. Lauren is an Undergraduate Scholar here at the University of Birmingham and is working on the Impact activities with Enrique.

Expect more updates from Lauren and from other team members about the fast-approaching conference shortly.

The completion of the transcription stage

Yesterday was a big day at Estoria Towers, even though it almost passed without us noticing. It was the day that the biggest and most time-consuming task of the project was finally completed. For three and a half years we have been working on transcribing the five witnesses of the Estoria de Espanna, and yesterday Enrique pressed save on the transcription of the final folio. Without the transcriptions of these witnesses we would be unable to create our digital edition of the chronicle, which is, of course, the main thing we are aiming to produce in this project. Over the past few years the number of people working on the task of transcription has been considerable – this is truly a group transcription project: the bulk of the task has been carried out by our venerable and untiring research fellows Fiona Maguire and Enrique Jerez, as well as Ricardo Pichel, more recently. Alongside them have been working myself and Christian, Aengus, Nick, Bárbara, Marine, Alicia, a group of hardworking crowdsourcers, and several others who I will not mention here for risk of forgetting someone, but whose names will appear when we publish the edition. For many of us who have worked on preparing the transcriptions this has been a steep learning curve – I know I am not the only person who was introduced to palaeography, XML and the TEI purely to enable me to transcribe for this project. It is also important to remember that the transcriptions we have created are not the definitive version of the text, but rather just another witness, and just like the medieval scribes of Alfonso’s scriptorium and those who have copied, edited or re-touched the witnesses in the past, we are liable to make mistakes, assumptions and in place of slips of the pen, typographical errors. Each transcribed folio has been checked and re-checked, edited and re-edited, but as is the case in all academic research, despite our best efforts, some errors will have slipped through the net and will make it to the final edition. Of course, as a digital edition, once identified, we could always remove these errors, but this brings with it issues of when is enough enough – is enough ever enough? – should we freeze the edition as it was on the day it was published, or should we continue re-touching ad nauseam, for as long as tools, server space and the limits of human effort allow? These are questions for another day – for now let us bask in the satisfaction of having completed something, of having worked together over a number of years to create something that is better than what any of us could have done alone, no matter how long we had worked on it. Not strictly intended to celebrate the final pressing of save, but serendipitous nonetheless, Christian presented us at tea-break yesterday with his first Victoria sponge – and very successful it was too. Basking done, cake consumed, we went back to our desks and carried on with the next tasks of the project, which is where we find ourselves today – cracking back on.

Alfonso vuelve al cole

La intensa “gira” por la Península que llevamos a cabo Aengus y yo recientemente tenía también entre sus objetivos establecer un primer contacto con los colegios e institutos de Secundaria y Bachillerato que hace un año nos prestaron su apoyo a la hora de solicitar los fondos del AHRC para la divulgación de nuestra investigación. Se trataba en efecto de transmitirles cara a cara cuál es la naturaleza y el alcance del Proyecto, así como presentarles la propuesta docente que tenemos en vías de elaboración. Los centros en cuestión son cuatro, dos privados y dos públicos: Colegio Laude Fontenebro (Moralzarzal), IES Salvador Dalí (Barrio de la Concepción, Madrid), Colegio Árula (Alalpardo), IES Fernando I (Valencia de don Juan, León). En todos ellos las ideas que transmitimos en torno a cómo enfocar tanto la confección de los materiales como la ejecución de las sesiones didácticas fueron muy bien recibidas, y asimismo enriquecidas con sugerencias nuevas.

Muy grosso modo, la propuesta trata de adaptar los materiales que elaboraremos para la exposición digital al currículo de Secundaria y Bachillerato, y ello desde una perspectiva transversal que está en la naturaleza misma de la vida y la obra del Rey Sabio. Además, nos ha movido el deseo de poner en contacto a los estudiantes preuniversitarios con la “materia prima” de la literatura medieval (los códices), a través de un medio que les es sumamente afín hoy día: el digital. En fin, la plataforma contará con tres secciones: la Biblioteca, en que estarán almacenadas las imágenes de algunos códices, y las transcripciones y audiciones al castellano antiguo y moderno; los Módulos, en que se presentarán los contenidos y actividades anejas; y el Taller, en que se invitará a los alumnos a poner en práctica lo aprendido. En este sentido, cabe señalar el interés de una herramienta que nuestros compañeros de Sheffield tienen ya avanzada: el Transcription desk, que permitirá a los estudiantes bregarse con la paleografía medieval.

Por lo demás, lo previsto es trabajar en la elaboración de los materiales durante los próximos meses, y volver en septiembre a los centros a mostrar el resultado y acordar los cursos, grupos y asignaturas en que se realizarán las sesiones. En definitiva, esta primera toma de contacto resultó altamente enriquecedora, tanto humana como profesionalmente. Gracias de nuevo desde aquí a los profesores y directivos que han aceptado y apoyado esta colaboración.

Enrique Jerez
Birmingham, 5 May 2016

April 2016: Archives and exhibitions

Enrique and Aengus spent 10 days on a whistle stop tour of Spain at the end of April to examine manuscripts of the Estoria de Espanna and to make arrangements for our Impact activities which will take place from January 2017 onwards. Day 1 for Aengus was spent at the Instituto de Patrimonio Cultural de España and the Biblioteca Nacional de España.  The Santander codex (M-550 – known as T) is currently being restored there, in anticipation of the exhibition in Santander (of which more anon). I had the pleasure of a tour of the restoration facilities in the IPCE courtesy of the marvellous director of document conservation Ana Ros. The work is proceeding in the careful hands of the two restorers Pilar Díaz Boj y Maria Sánchez Dominguez and the expert on binding Isabel Lozano de Gregori. Unfortunately we missed the chance to discuss matters codicological with the Laura Fernández who has worked in such great depth on E1 and E2, but no doubt the opportunity will present itself again in the future.  Ricardo Pichel Gotérrez has already provided us with a full codicological description of T which will appear in the final version of the edition so little added work was required – I was however able to examine some of the folios in person.


T restored

On the same afternoon, I was able to spend some time in the Biblioteca Nacional examining manuscripts Q and C, both of which will appear in the Biblioteca Nacional exhibition in January. And there was still time to catch up with long-time friend of the project Alicia Montero.

The following day, Enrique and Aengus had the pleasure of examining in person the central codices of our edition: E1 and E2 at the Real Biblioteca de San Lorenzo de El Escorial.


Over the course of two Saturday mornings we were able to examine both manuscripts in some detail and sketch out a full codicological survey of the two. As is well known, E2 is more complex from this point of view than E1, which is the only Alfonsine codex of the Estoria. Nonetheless, Aengus was able to identify some significant details of manuscript damage, relationships between gatherings and scribal slip-ups while Enrique examined in some detail the complexities of E2. We were greatly aided in this, and in our negotiations with Patrimonio Nacional, with the director of what must be one of the most impressive manuscript collections in Europe by its amiable director José Luis del Valle Merino.

The focus in subsequent days turned to Impact. We were joined by Mike Pidd of the University of Sheffield’s Humanities Research Institute to discuss details of the proposed exhibition with the Biblioteca Nacional and also the implementation of teaching materials with one school in Madrid. First up was a meeting with Carlos Alberdi (Director Cultural), Gema Hernández Carralón (Jefe del Museo de la BNE), Cristina Guillén Bermejo (Sala Cervantes) and Mercedes Pasalodos Salgado of the BNE. A very fruitful agreement was reached on timings and content of the exhibition. The physical exhibition will take place in the BNE Museo between the 31st January and 14th April 2017 and the digital content to accompany it will be available from shortly before then. In addition to details about Alfonso el Sabio and the Estoria de Espanna we will provide interactive tools to enable visitors to search the Estoria in a variety of ways and also to have a go at transcribing. Further blog posts will give a better idea of how these tools will work.

While Enrique went to visit further schools, Aengus visited Santander. The aim of the digital exhibition is that is should coincide with physical exhibitions of some of the main codices of the Estoria; in addition to the Biblioteca Nacional, these will take place in the Biblioteca de Menéndez Pelayo in Santander and at the Universities of Salamanca and Minnesota at the same time.

In Santander, I was able to discuss arrangements with the ever-helpful Rosa Fernández Lera and Andrés del Rey Sayagüés whose generosity and welcome could not be matched.



We agreed that the exhibition will take place beginning in the same week as the Biblioteca Nacional (but a few days later, to permit the presence of all at the opening). It will take place in the reading room of the library (pictured above). At Andrés’s suggestion, we agreed that the display of T be accompanied by some other codices in their wonderful collection. There are a number of related historiographical and Alfonsine codices, so expect to see some of these in the Santander exhibition. Among these is a manuscript of the General Estoria which benefits from particularly ornate catchwords.

Santander GE


And so on to Salamanca and a meeting with the indefatigable Maragarita Becedas-González, Director of the Biblioteca General Histórica de la Universidad de Salamanca in the company of Enrique and member of the consejo científico Paco Bautista of the Universidad de Salamanca. Once more I was overwhelmed by the generosity of the welcome and the wish for collaborations. The exhibition of the three codices of the Estoria (B, CF and F – which we had the pleasure of examining in person subsequently) will take place to coincide with the others in the unique setting of the Biblioteca Histórica.

Screen Shot 2016-05-05 at 10.45.00


In the course of our discussions and visit to the library, we had the privilege of being able to examine early manuscripts of the Chronicon Mundi, De Rebus Hispanie and (why not…?) the Salamanca manuscript of the Libro de Buen Amor.

The final full day was spent in Salamanca at the SEMYR seminar, led by Paco Bautista and Michel García.

2016-04-29 12.41.43-7

Aengus and Inés Fernández-Ordóñez gave their respective views on the different ways of editing the Estoria.  I was able to demonstrate the collation and editing tools we are helping to develop and these were welcomed with significant interest. A very fruitful discussion ensued – and lasted all the way back to Madrid on the train courtesy of Enrique and Inés, whose intellectual curiosity and generosity never cease to amaze. Especial thanks go to Paco Bautista, Juan Miguel Valero and to Pedro Cátedra for the invitation to speak in so prestigious a seminar and for their helpful comments.

After a final few hours in El Escorial, it was back to Birmingham. We have much work still to do on editing and Impact but the positive impression garnered over ten intense days in Spain will live long in the memory.

Especial thanks to all of those mentioned above for their help and warm welcome.

Project Update: April 2016

There’s lots going on here at the EDIT project and it’s about time we gave you a little update. We have finished or almost finished all of the witnesses we are going to be transcribing. Aengus has been busily preparing the collation and Zeth has made a regularisation tool that Christian and I will be using to work towards the preparation of the critical version of the text. Zeth’s regularisation tool is a real thing of beauty, but then we never expected anything less. We all enjoyed listening to the three talks in yesterday’s research seminar, and of course looking at the images in the PowerPoints including manuscript T during its restoration, thanks to Ricardo’s amazing photos. What a treat to be able to see the manuscript we have been working on in such a way. Aengus has been to give a talk in the US and soon he and Enrique will be jetting off to Spain for lots of talks, meetings and visits for the project, including visiting schools. Enrique has been working really hard preparing materials for schools and for the exhibitions of the project which will be taking place in the near future. Christian and I have spent Easter creating a database of dates according to E1 and E2 which will allow users of the edition to search the content of the Estoria more easily, and which will eventually link to the database that Fiona is currently preparing, which will be an index of people and places in the Estoria. As well as this we are all working separately on papers, presentations, theses, and of course towards our final conference which will take place in December.